nihonkohden

Glossary

 A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  L  M  N
 O  P  R  S  T  V

A

Acute care hospital

Hospitals that provide medical care and surgery for severely ill patients who have suddenly lost their health due to illness or injury.

AED

An Automated External Defibrillator delivers an electrical shock to restore a normal heart rhythm to a heart which has lost the ability to pump blood due to convulsions (ventricular fibrillation). 
In Japan, the use of AEDs by ordinary citizens has been legally recognized since July 2004.

Arrhythmia

Abnormal heart rhythms such as bradyarrhythmia and tachyarrhythmia (atrial fibrillation and ventricular fibrillation etc.).

Audible Cue

Nihon Kohden's unique technology for ETCO₂ measurement delivers 5 different sounds to indicate a patient’s ETCO₂ level.

B

Bedside monitor

A medical device that displays vital signs such as ECG, respiration, blood pressure, SpO₂, and body temperature on a screen near the patient. The alarms alert clinicians if there is any change in the patient’s condition. Measurement items can be selected and set individually for each patient.

C

Catheter

A tubular or wire-shaped piece of medical equipment. In Japan, Nihon Kohden imports and supplies electrophysiology catheters for diagnosing arrhythmias and ablation catheters for treating arrhythmias.

CBC (complete blood count)

A basic screening test to diagnose or monitor various types of diseases and other conditions including anemia, infectious diseases, and bleeding. The number and size of white blood cells, red blood cells and platelets is measured and used to understand the patient’s condition.

Central monitor

Central patient monitoring system installed at a nurse station to care for multiple patients simultaneously. It intensively monitors vital signs such as ECG, respiration, blood pressure, SpO₂, and body temperature, and alerts clinicians if there is any change in the patients’ conditions.

CFDA

China Food and Drug Administration. CFDA changed its name to NMPA in 2018. 

Chronic hospital

Hospitals that provide medical care to patients who require long term hospitalization and treatment.

Clinical chemistry analyzer

A medical device that measures general biochemical parameters such as cholesterol, proteins, and enzymes in the blood and urine. Our products are available for measuring CRP and HbA1c.

Clinical information system

An IT system mainly used in operating rooms and wards. It collects and records patients' vital sign data obtained from patient monitors and other medical devices as well as medical information such as body temperature checks, dosing, infusion, procedure, and follow-up observations.

CPR

Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation is a life-saving procedure that combines chest compressions and artificial ventilation, performed when a person’s heart and breathing are stopped.

CRP

C-Reactive Protein is a protein that increases in serum when acute inflammation or destruction of tissue cells occurs in the body. It is used to measure the degree of inflammation in the body caused by infectious diseases.

D

Defibrillator

A medical device that delivers an electric shock to restore a normal heart rhythm to a heart which has lost the ability to pump blood due to convulsions (ventricular fibrillation). AED is an automated external defibrillator that can be used by the general public.

Defibtech

A subsidiary in the U.S. which develops, manufactures, and sells resuscitation equipment such as AEDs. Nihon Kohden acquired Defibtech in 2012.

Diagnostic information system

An IT system mainly used in laboratories. It collects and stores patients’ test data from EEG, ECG, ultrasonic diagnostic equipment, endoscopes, etc. Medical staff in laboratories and outpatient departments can use the system to view saved test data and create examination reports.

E

ec1

Nihon Kohden’s unique arrhythmia analysis algorithm which improves the arrhythmia detection rate and decreases false alarms. 

ECG (electrocardiograph)

A medical device used mainly in laboratories and clinics. It examines abnormalities in electrical signals of the heart. A Holter ECG monitor is used for long-term ECG monitoring during daily life.

EEG (electroencephalograph)

A medical device that measures and records electrical activity in the brain. The EEG test usually takes about 30 minutes. It is used to examine and diagnose epilepsy, headaches, dizziness, cerebral vascular disorders, neurological diseases, and head trauma.

EMG/EP measuring system

A medical device used in electromyography (EMG) testing to detect nerve disorders or muscle disorders by stimulating arms or legs, as well as in evoked potential (EP) testing to measure how the brain, spinal cord, or nerves respond to stimulation of eyes, ears, wrists, or ankles.

esCCO

esCCO is Nihon Kohden’s unique technology which can estimate continuous cardiac output based on ECG and pulse waves obtained from pulse oximetry.

ESR

Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate is an inflammatory marker. ESR is measured for screening diseases or diagnosing chronic inflammatory diseases. The level of ESR is higher in acute infections, chronic infections such as tuberculosis, and chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatism, and collagen disease.

ETCO₂

End Tidal CO₂, the level of carbon dioxide released at the end of expiration, is an indicator for evaluating ventilation of patients.

F

FDA

Food and Drug Administration (U.S.).

Funds for comprehensive medical and long-term care in the communities

A financial support system that was established in FY2014 to help realize the regional medical care revival plans drawn up by each prefecture. The funds have been used to support differentiation of medical institution functions, enhancement of medical coordination, promotion of home medical care, and securing of medical staff. 

G

GP

General Practitioner.

GPO

Group Purchasing Organization.

H

HbA1c

Hemoglobin A1c is an indicator of blood glucose level over the past one to two months. It is used in the diagnosis of diabetes and blood glucose control.

Hematology analyzer

A medical device that measures the number of blood cells such as red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets as well as the amount of hemoglobin in red blood cells. It is used for assessing the severity of diseases such as infectious diseases and malignant tumors, or the effects of treatment.

HMI

Human Machine Interface is the user interface that connects human and machine. For Nihon Kohden, this refers to sensor technology, signal processing technology, and data analysis technology.

I

ICD

An Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator delivers an electrical shock to the heart to treat life-threatening arrhythmias such as ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation. It also paces the heart if the heart rate becomes slow.

ICU

Intensive Care Unit.

IDN

An Integrated Delivery Network is a coalition of several hospitals.

iNIBP

Nihon Kohden’s unique non-invasive blood pressure measurement algorithm using a linear inflation technology that completes the measurement while the cuff is inflating.

Integrated community care system

A comprehensive regional support and service system that the Japanese government will establish by 2025, when the baby-boom generation will be over 75 years old. The system will provide integrated medical care, long-term care, preventive medicine, housing, and lifestyle support for elderly people in accordance with the healthcare systems in each region. 

IP Code

The International Protection Code rating is the degree of product protection against the ingress of dust and water.

L

Locally purchased products

Third-party products excluding strategically purchased products. They include imaging systems in the Other Medical Equipment category.

M

MFER

The Medical Waveform Format Encoding Rules are a set of standard rules for encoding medical waveform data such as ECG, EEG, and respiratory waveforms. 

N

NIBP

Non-invasive Blood Pressure is measured by wrapping a cuff around the upper arm or lower leg.  

NICU

Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

NLR

Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio is an inflammatory marker which is also used for the prediction of COVID-19 severity.

NMPA

National Medical Products Administration (China). NMPA changed its name from CFDA in 2018.

NPi

Nihon Kohden’s unique algorithm for SpO₂ measurement. It features an improved a filtering function which removes artifacts to provide a higher precision data.

NPPV

Non-invasive Positive Pressure Ventilation is artificial respiratory management which doesn’t require intratracheal intubation or tracheotomy.

O

OR

Operating Room.

Other Medical Equipment

The product category that includes hematology analyzers, clinical chemistry analyzers, ultrasound diagnostic equipment, equipment for research and others, related consumables such as test reagents, and installation and maintenance services.

P

Pacemaker

A medical device that treats bradyarrhythmia by stimulating the heart electrically and inducing contraction of the heart muscle. Bradyarrhythmia leads to a drop in blood pressure due to a decrease in the heart rate.

PAD market

The Public Access Defibrillation market includes public facilities, schools, and private companies.

Patient Monitor

The product category that includes patient monitors such as bedside monitors, central monitors, telemetry systems, and clinical information systems, related consumables such as electrodes and sensors, and maintenance services.

Physiological Measuring Equipment

The product category that includes electroencephalographs (EEG), evoked potential/electromyogram measuring systems, electrocardiographs (ECG), polygraphs for cath labs, diagnostic information systems, related consumables such as recording paper, electrodes, catheters, and maintenance services.

POCT

Point of Care Testing is performed in clinical practice such as clinic, home care, examination room, and operating room.

Polygraph for cath lab

A medical device that measures and analyzes vital signs such as ECG and blood pressure during tests and treatment that involve inserting catheters into the heart from the surface of the body.

Pulse oximeter

A medical device that continuously measures the oxygen saturation in arterial blood (how much hemoglobin is bound to oxygen) using a sensor attached to the fingertip or earlobe. Using a pulse oximeter, it is possible to monitor whether a patient's body is getting enough oxygen in real time without blood sampling. In 1974, Nihon Kohden invented the principle of the pulse oximetry, the world's first non-invasive continuous measurement of oxygen saturation in blood using light.

Purchased products

Third-party products that are strategically purchased and sold in Japan. These products have synergies with our in-house products. They include catheters in the Physiological Measuring Equipment category, and pacemakers and ICDs in the Treatment Equipment category.

R

Reagent

A chemical used to detect and analyze specific substances. Nihon Kohden manufactures reagents such as hemolysing reagents for hematology analyzers. Hemolysing reagents are used to dissolve the hemoglobin in red blood cells and measure its concentration.

Recovery care hospital

Hospitals that provide medical care and rehabilitation for patients who have been discharged from acute care and are preparing to return home.

Regional health vision

An initiative of the Japanese government to establish a strong framework for regional medical care by 2025, when demand for medical care and nursing care will peak as the baby boom generation reach the age of 75 or older. The initiative promotes differentiation of medical care functions and cooperation between medical institutions in each region based on estimates of the number of hospital beds needed in 2025.

Regional medical care revival plan

A financial support system that provided a total amount of 605 billion yen from FY2009 to FY2013 (FY2015 in some regions) to solve medical issues in each region. The budgets were used for stabilizing emergency medical care and securing doctors in region areas.

S

Sensor

Sensors such as SpO₂/CO₂ sensors are Human Machine Interfaces for measuring patients’ vital signs.

Small and mid-sized hospital

Hospitals with less than 200 beds. 

SpO₂

Oxygen saturation in arterial blood is measured on the surface of the body using a pulse oximeter.

Spot check monitor

A type of patient monitors for conducting spot checks of SpO₂, blood pressure, and body temperature during ward rounds by medical staff. It is popular in the U.S market.

synECi18

Technology name of Nihon Kohden’s unique synthesized 18-lead ECG technology.

Synthesized18-lead ECG

Measurement method to derive right-side and posterior waveforms from the standard 12-lead ECG without any special procedure such as replacing electrodes. It can help to detect right ventricular infarction and posterior infarction.

T

Telemetry system

A telemetry system is a radio-based multi-patient monitor installed at nurse station. It receives and displays vital signs such as ECG, SpO₂, respiration and blood pressure from transmitters worn by patients. The alarms alert clinicians if there is any change in patient conditions.

Transmitter

A small and lightweight medical device that continuously and wirelessly transmits vital signs such as ECG, respiration, SpO₂, and blood pressure to a central monitor or telemetry system.

Treatment Equipment

The product category that includes defibrillators, AEDs, ventilators, pacemakers, anesthesia machines, cochlear implants, related consumables such as AED pads, batteries, and maintenance services.

V

Ventilator

A medical device that assists a patient’s breathing mechanically. It also supports medical staff by monitoring the necessary parameters to ensure that respiratory management is appropriate for the patient’s lung condition.

Vital signs

Indicators such as ECG, respiration, blood pressure, SpO₂, and body temperature that are used to monitor a patient’s condition. A patient monitor is a medical device that measures and displays vital signs continuously.